Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Provide a summary of other studies that?directly relate?to your identified disease. Be sure to refer back to the sources used for your annotated bibliography - Essayabode

 

1- Provide a summary of other studies that directly relate to your identified disease. Be sure to refer back to the sources used for your annotated bibliography in week 4. Please note that if you have already listed at least 4 recent-within the past 4 years only- and relevant peer reviewed journal articles in your week 4 project paper, then please provide an additional three recent and relevant peer reviewed journal articles.

2- Considering the feedback you received on your week 4 assignment, restate- whether you need to redraft or not- your “Statement of the Problem” (or research question).

3- Identify both your null and alternative/research hypothesis.

4- Provide a brief description of the significance of why this issue is important for examination. This includes a statement of the positive social change.

**Please include the following header on this Assignment**
One simple statement for each. This helps you and the instructor keep track of what you are attempting.

 

: (2–3 pages)

  • Provide a summary of other studies that directly relate to your identified disease. Be sure to refer back to the sources used for your annotated bibliography in week 4.
  • Considering the feedback you received on your week 4 assignment, restate your “Statement of the Problem” (or research question).
  • Identify both your null and alternative/research hypothesis.
  • Provide a brief description of the significance of why this issue is important for examination.

**Please include the following header on this Assignment**
One simple statement for each. This helps you and the instructor keep track of what you are attempting.

RQ:
Dependent Variable:
Independent Variable(s):
Null Hypothesis:
Alternate Hypothesis:
Statistical Test:

2

Interpretation and Application of Data

June 23rd, 2024

Interpretation and Application of Data

Introduction

The pancreas is a critical organ that plays a significant role in metabolic and digestive functions. However, the prognosis for pancreatic cancer stays poor, rendering it the third leading factor in cancer mortality, with an exponentially growing rate regardless of demographic characteristics.

This study examines the association between tobacco use and pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Tobacco consumption impacts risk, and clarifying its role informs prevention. The study studies tobacco in packs per day and the risk of pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Recent systematic literature has guaranteed a connection between smoking and pancreatic cancer. However, additional reviews are critical while concluding relationships when different variables are controlled.

Research question: What is the relationship between tobacco consumption, as measured by packs smoked per day, and the risk of pancreatic cancer diagnosis? Dependent variable: Pancreatic cancer. Independent variable: tobacco consumption (packs smoked per day) Null hypothesis: There exists no relationship between tobacco consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Alternate hypothesis: There exists a relationship between tobacco consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.

Annotated Bibliography

Bibliography 1:

Edirisinghe, S., Weerasekera, M., De Silva, D., Liyanage, I., Niluka, M., Madushika, K., Deegodagamage, S., Wijesundara, C., Rich, A., De Silva, H., Hussaini, H., De Silva, K., & Yasawardene, S. (2022). The Risk of Oral Cancer among Different Categorise Tobacco Smoking Exposure in Sri Lanka. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 23(9), 2929–2935. https://doi.org/10.31557/apjcp.2022.23.9.2929

This source examines the risk of oral cancer based on different categories of tobacco smoking exposure in Sri Lanka. A case-control study incorporated 105 patients with oral cancer and 210 controls. The investigation discovered that the number of cigarettes smoked each day and the consolidated utilization of betel quid and smoking are critical threats to cancer among Sri Lankans. While this source fails to examine the connection between tobacco and pancreatic cancer explicitly, it gives significant information on the disease risk from various degrees of tobacco consumption.

Bibliography 2:

Mohammad Moein Vakilzadeh, Reza Khayami, Danyal Daneshdoust, Reza Moshfeghinia, Farzad Sharifnezhad, Zahra Taghiabadi, Hanieh Keikhay Moghadam, Mohammad Ali Karimi, Ghorbani, A., Pegah Bahrami Taqanaki, Nima Boojar, Azarshab, A., Soodabeh Shahidsales, & Reihaneh Alsadat Mahmoudian. (2024). Prevalence of tobacco use among cancer patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 24(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-024-18594-8

This source provides details regarding a deliberate survey and meta-analysis of the pervasiveness of tobacco consumption among cancer patients in Iran. It surveyed 26 studies involving more than 32,000 cancer patients. The investigation revealed that the patients shared 33.7% of current tobacco use and 12.9% of previous tobacco use. Although the source fails to examine tobacco usage in relation to cancer rates directly, it provides an important foundation for tobacco use trends among Iranian cancer patients.

Bibliography 3:

Scherübl, H. (2022). Tobacco Smoking and Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk. Visceral Medicine, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1159/000523668

This study examined the relationship between tobacco use and several gastrointestinal cancers, showing that anal, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, biliary, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancers are all brought on by tobacco use. On pancreatic cancer specifically, this manuscript reveals that cigarette smoking approximately doubles the relative risk, and smoking intensity is an increasing risk. It also reports that smoking cessation can help reduce excess pancreatic cancer risk. This source directly examines the link between tobacco consumption and pancreatic cancer risk.

Bibliography 4:

Weber, M. F., Sarich, P. E. A., Vaneckova, P., Wade, S., Egger, S., Ngo, P., Joshy, G., Goldsbury, D. E., Yap, S., Feletto, E., Vassallo, A., Laaksonen, M. A., Grogan, P., O’Connell, D. L., Banks, E., & Canfell, K. (2021). Cancer incidence and cancer death in relation to tobacco smoking in a population‐based Australian cohort study. International Journal of Cancer, 149(5), 1076–1088. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33685

This cohort study examined information from over 229,000 Australian respondents to investigate the connection between smoking history, cancer frequency, and mortality. The outcomes show that current smokers have an expanded risk of pancreatic cancer compared with non-smokers. Risk also increases, corresponding to smoking intensity. This source provides additional evidence on the positive association between tobacco consumption and pancreatic cancer risk, based on a large population-level cohort from Australia.

Statistical Test Data Dictionary:

References

Edirisinghe, S., Weerasekera, M., De Silva, D., Liyanage, I., Niluka, M., Madushika, K., Deegodagamage, S., Wijesundara, C., Rich, A., De Silva, H., Hussaini, H., De Silva, K., & Yasawardene, S. (2022). The Risk of Oral Cancer among Different Categorise Tobacco Smoking Exposure in Sri Lanka. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 23(9), 2929–2935. https://doi.org/10.31557/apjcp.2022.23.9.2929

Mohammad Moein Vakilzadeh, Reza Khayami, Danyal Daneshdoust, Reza Moshfeghinia, Farzad Sharifnezhad, Zahra Taghiabadi, Hanieh Keikhay Moghadam, Mohammad Ali Karimi, Ghorbani, A., Pegah Bahrami Taqanaki, Nima Boojar, Azarshab, A., Soodabeh Shahidsales, & Reihaneh Alsadat Mahmoudian. (2024). Prevalence of tobacco use among cancer patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 24(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-024-18594-8

Scherübl, H. (2022). Tobacco Smoking and Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk. Visceral Medicine, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1159/000523668

Weber, M. F., Sarich, P. E. A., Vaneckova, P., Wade, S., Egger, S., Ngo, P., Joshy, G., Goldsbury, D. E., Yap, S., Feletto, E., Vassallo, A., Laaksonen, M. A., Grogan, P., O’Connell, D. L., Banks, E., & Canfell, K. (2021). Cancer incidence and cancer death in relation to tobacco smoking in a population‐based Australian cohort study. International Journal of Cancer, 149(5), 1076–1088. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33685

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Walden University

PUBH 6033/8033

Interpretation & app of data

Getting Started on the Final Project

Review Instructions

Before starting the first assignment associated with the Final Project (Week 4), check the three areas of the course that contain instructions and read through each of them carefully:

Course Information: Final Project rubrics and dataset

Week 4 Project tab

Week 11 Final Project tab

Download and Open the Final Project Dataset

Locate the “FinalProject.sav” datafile in the Course Information or Week 4 Project section of the classroom.

Click on the link and save the file to your computer’s hard drive.

To open the file, you must first open SPSS.

Click the Start menu

Click on IBM SPSS Statistics 21 (or whatever version you have)

Under the “Open an existing data source” box, double-click “More Files”

Locate the FinalProject.sav file, highlight it, and click Open

Run a Data Dictionary

The Data Dictionary produces information on all of the variables, including names, labels, and level of measurement (nominal/categorical, ordinal, and scale/quantitative).

Click on File > Display Data File Information > Working File

Information will be displayed in the Output Viewer window.

Remember to include the Data Dictionary in your Week 4 Final Project Assignment.

Right click the table, click “Copy”, and paste the table to Word

Select A Disease of Interest

Using information from the Data Dictionary, select one of the five diseases as the dependent variable for your Final Project

Malaria infection

AIDS (CD4 count)

CHD mortality

Diabetes (Plasma glucose concentration)

Pancreatic cancer

Select Independent Variable(s)

Use the Data Dictionary to identify independent variables that relate to your selected disease (dependent variable)

Independent variables include:

Demographics: Gender, Age, Race/Ethnicity, Income, Education, Insurance, Urban, Region

Clinical Risk Factors: BMI, Cholesterol

Behavioral Risk Factors: Alcohol, Tobacco, IDU, Condom, Exercise, Fruit/Vegetable

Now select 1-2 independent variables to include in your study

Your decision should be based on the literature, clinical significance, or interest in the topic

Be sure that the connection between your independent variables and disease (dependent variable) is plausible

Develop a Research Question

Your Final Project will be guided by the research question you develop.

What makes a good research question?

A definable relationship between at least one independent variable and a dependent variable.

An issue that fills a gap in the literature (if possible for this course, a must for a dissertation).

The research question should clearly express that you will examine the association between 1-2 independent variables and your disease of interest (dependent variable).

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Research Question Examples

Is there an association between sun exposure and skin cancer?

Is there a difference in asthma prevalence between males and females in the United States?

Does ecstasy use vary by age in the United States?

Do geographic location and income predict dengue infection?

It is recommended that you choose a simple research question for the Final Project. In Week 9, you will be asked to perform statistical analysis using SPSS to answer the research question.

List the Null and Alternative Hypotheses

After developing your research question, then you must list the null and alternative hypotheses.

Null = no association or difference

Alternative = there is an association or difference

Example:

Is there an association between sun exposure and skin cancer?

Null = There is no association between sun exposure and skin cancer.

Alternative = There is an association between sun exposure and skin cancer.

Levels of Measurement

Go back to the Data Dictionary and determine the level of measurement for each of the variables in your research question.

Levels of measurement help you determine the appropriate statistical test to answer your research question.

Examples:

Dengue infection = nominal/categorical (Yes/No)

Geographic location = nominal/categorical

Income = ordinal

BMI = scale/quantitative

Select the Appropriate Statistical Test

In Week 7, you are asked to identify the appropriate statistical test to answer your research question.

The answer depends on the number of variables and levels of measurement. See the next slide for a table that will help you make an appropriate decision.

These are the most commonly used statistical tests that are covered in this course:

Chi-square

Pearson correlation

T-test

ANOVA

Logistic regression

Linear regression

What statistical test should I use?

Nature of Independent Variables Nature of Dependent Variable Test(s)
1 IV with 2 levels (independent groups) quantitative Independent sample t-test
ordinal Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test
categorical Chi- square test
Fisher's exact test
1 IV with 2 or more levels (independent groups) quantitative one-way ANOVA
ordinal Kruskal Wallis
categorical Chi- square test
1 IV with 2 levels (dependent/matched groups) quantitative paired t-test
ordinal Wilcoxon signed ranks test
categorical McNemar
1 IV with 2 or more levels (dependent/matched groups) quantitative one-way repeated measures ANOVA
ordinal Friedman test
categorical repeated measures logistic regression
2 or more IVs (independent groups) quantitative factorial ANOVA
ordinal ordered logistic regression
categorical factorial logistic regression
1 quantitative IV quantitative correlation
simple linear regression
ordinal non-parametric correlation
categorical simple logistic regression
1 or more quantitative IVs and/or 1 or more categorical IVs quantitative multiple regression
analysis of covariance
categorical multiple logistic regression
discriminant analysis

Examples

Is there an association between sun exposure and skin cancer?

Sun exposure (IV) = nominal/categorical

Skin cancer (DV) = nominal/categorical

Correct test = Chi-square

Is there a difference in asthma prevalence between males and females in the United States?

Gender (IV) = nominal/categorical

Asthma (DV) = scale/quantitative

Correct test = T-test

Work with Instructor and GA

Contact your instructor or GA to ensure that your research question will work well for all assignments in the course.

Be sure to review feedback on each assignment, as they all build into one final paper.

Week 4 = Topic, problem statement, annotated bibliography

Week 6 = Literature review, hypothesis, and significance

Week 7 = Methods

Week 9 = Results, codebook, syntax

Week 11 = Final Paper, synthesize all sections and add interpretation