**The Assignment: (2–3 pages)**

- Provide a brief (e.g., 2-paragraph) background summary of the disease (dependent variable) you have selected from the Final Project dataset.
- Identify and provide a brief description of the independent and dependent variables you will consider for your Final Project.
- Run and save the Data Dictionary from the Final Project SPSS datafile. Include the output as an appendix to your assignment.
- Describe your “Statement of the Problem” (stated as a research question). Be sure your statement or question makes mention of both the independent and dependent variables you are examining. (This will be important for later assignments when you complete statistical analysis using the Final Project dataset.).
- Provide an Annotated bibliography which is to include:
- Sources: Four recent (less than 3 years old) primary peer-reviewed research articles related to the disease of your paper. Beyond the minimum four primary research articles, you may add additional, high-quality secondary literature (reviews or meta-analyses), and you may use websites if from a scholarly and relevant source (e.g. CDC, NCHS, etc.). Your sources must follow APA formatting.
- Annotation: For each research article, include a brief description of the study aim, the methods used, and the major findings. For each non research source, provide a concise description of the relevant key points addressed in the source. Include in the annotation a brief description of how you plan to use each source (e.g. provides statistics for the problem, etc.)

**Please include the following header ON THIS and ALL FUTURE Assignments for the Final Project.**

One simple statement for each. This helps you and the instructor keep track of what you are attempting.

**RQ:**

**Dependent Variable:**

**Independent Variable(s):**

**Null Hypothesis:**

**Alternate Hypothesis:**

**Statistical Test**

**PUBH-6033/8033: Final Project Template (Introduction)**

**Introduction** (3 pages)

In Week 4, you are asked to prepare the Introduction to your Final Project. It should include the following components:

· Provide a brief (e.g., 2 paragraph) background summary about the disease (dependent variable) you have selected from the Final Project dataset.

· Identify and provide a brief description of the independent and dependent variables you will consider for your Final Project.

· Run and save the Data Dictionary from the Final Project SPSS datafile. Include the output as an appendix to your assignment.

· Describe your “Statement of the Problem” (stated as a research question). Be sure your statement or question makes mention of both the independent and dependent variables you are examining. (This will be important for later assignments when you complete statistical analysis using the Final Project dataset.)

· Annotated bibliography with at least 4 recent peer-reviewed articles related to your topic and a brief description of the relevance to your study.

Following is a template for how the Introduction might look in APA style and scholarly voice. Note that this is an example and your Introduction should discuss the same components in this order but you should not necessarily use the same wording. You can also look at peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to your topic for ideas about how to formulate the Introduction to a research manuscript.

___________________________________________________________________________________

**Please include the following header ON THIS and ALL FUTURE Assignments for the Final Project.**

One simple statement for each. This helps you and the instructor keep track of what you are attempting.

**RQ: Dependent Variable: Independent Variable(s):**

**Null Hypothesis: Alternate Hypothesis: Statistical Test: **

** **

**Null Hypothesis: **There is no association ** **between [independent variable] and [dependent variable]. **Alternate Hypothesis: **There is an association ** **between [independent variable] and [dependent variable].

**Statistical Test: **To be determined in Week 7

___________________________________________________________________________________

**Introduction**

In recent years, both the scientific literature and popular press have devoted attention to [disease]. A study by Jones, Ray, Thompson, and Mendez (2010) indicated…. In contrast, Smith and Henderson (2013) found that… Nonetheless, evidence from the local and regional level is corroborated by data reported in the [disease] study. Data from the 2012 report shows excess prevalence of [disease] among certain subpopulations. Etc… However, none of these studies has examined the impact of [risk factor(s)] on [disease].

The Final Project dataset includes a variety of independent and dependent variables. The present study will utilize the following variables: [disease] as the dependent variable and [risk factor(s)] as the independent variable(s). Therefore, this study will examine whether there is an association between [risk factor(s)] and [disease].

**Annotated Bibliography**

1. Pabayo, R., Molnar, B.E., Cradock, A., & Kawachi, I. (2014). The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts. *Am J Public Health.* Published online ahead of print September 11, 2014: e1–e8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302109

Pabayo and colleagues examined whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Data for this cross-sectional study came from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey (BYS), a biennial survey of high-school students (aged 14-19 years in grades 9-12) in Boston Public Schools. Multi-level logistic modeling revealed that high social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). This source will be used to support the idea that further research is needed on community-level factors that influence physical activity.

2. Peer-reviewed article reference in APA style

Brief description of study aim, methods used, major findings, and how you plan to use the source.

3. Peer-reviewed article reference in APA style

Same as above.

4. Peer-reviewed article reference in APA style

Same as above.

**References**

[List references used in the Introduction as well as Annotated Bibliography in alphabetical order according to APA style. See: http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa/references]

**Data Dictionary **

[Example below] ** **

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,

Walden University

PUBH 6033/8033

Interpretation & app of data

Getting Started on the Final Project

Review Instructions

Before starting the first assignment associated with the Final Project (Week 4), check the three areas of the course that contain instructions and read through each of them carefully:

Course Information: Final Project rubrics and dataset

Week 4 Project tab

Week 11 Final Project tab

Download and Open the Final Project Dataset

Locate the “FinalProject.sav” datafile in the Course Information or Week 4 Project section of the classroom.

Click on the link and save the file to your computer’s hard drive.

To open the file, you must first open SPSS.

Click the Start menu

Click on IBM SPSS Statistics 21 (or whatever version you have)

Under the “Open an existing data source” box, double-click “More Files”

Locate the FinalProject.sav file, highlight it, and click Open

Run a Data Dictionary

The Data Dictionary produces information on all of the variables, including names, labels, and level of measurement (nominal/categorical, ordinal, and scale/quantitative).

Click on File > Display Data File Information > Working File

Information will be displayed in the Output Viewer window.

Remember to include the Data Dictionary in your Week 4 Final Project Assignment.

Right click the table, click “Copy”, and paste the table to Word

Select A Disease of Interest

Using information from the Data Dictionary, select one of the five diseases as the dependent variable for your Final Project

Malaria infection

AIDS (CD4 count)

CHD mortality

Diabetes (Plasma glucose concentration)

Pancreatic cancer

Select Independent Variable(s)

Use the Data Dictionary to identify independent variables that relate to your selected disease (dependent variable)

Independent variables include:

Demographics: Gender, Age, Race/Ethnicity, Income, Education, Insurance, Urban, Region

Clinical Risk Factors: BMI, Cholesterol

Behavioral Risk Factors: Alcohol, Tobacco, IDU, Condom, Exercise, Fruit/Vegetable

Now select 1-2 independent variables to include in your study

Your decision should be based on the literature, clinical significance, or interest in the topic

Be sure that the connection between your independent variables and disease (dependent variable) is plausible

Develop a Research Question

Your Final Project will be guided by the research question you develop.

What makes a good research question?

A definable relationship between at least one independent variable and a dependent variable.

An issue that fills a gap in the literature (if possible for this course, a must for a dissertation).

The research question should clearly express that you will examine the association between 1-2 independent variables and your disease of interest (dependent variable).

7

Research Question Examples

Is there an association between sun exposure and skin cancer?

Is there a difference in asthma prevalence between males and females in the United States?

Does ecstasy use vary by age in the United States?

Do geographic location and income predict dengue infection?

It is recommended that you choose a simple research question for the Final Project. In Week 9, you will be asked to perform statistical analysis using SPSS to answer the research question.

List the Null and Alternative Hypotheses

After developing your research question, then you must list the null and alternative hypotheses.

Null = no association or difference

Alternative = there is an association or difference

Example:

Is there an association between sun exposure and skin cancer?

Null = There is no association between sun exposure and skin cancer.

Alternative = There is an association between sun exposure and skin cancer.

Levels of Measurement

Go back to the Data Dictionary and determine the level of measurement for each of the variables in your research question.

Levels of measurement help you determine the appropriate statistical test to answer your research question.

Examples:

Dengue infection = nominal/categorical (Yes/No)

Geographic location = nominal/categorical

Income = ordinal

BMI = scale/quantitative

Select the Appropriate Statistical Test

In Week 7, you are asked to identify the appropriate statistical test to answer your research question.

The answer depends on the number of variables and levels of measurement. See the next slide for a table that will help you make an appropriate decision.

These are the most commonly used statistical tests that are covered in this course:

Chi-square

Pearson correlation

T-test

ANOVA

Logistic regression

Linear regression

What statistical test should I use?

Nature of Independent Variables | Nature of Dependent Variable | Test(s) |

1 IV with 2 levels (independent groups) | quantitative | Independent sample t-test |

ordinal | Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test | |

categorical | Chi- square test | |

Fisher's exact test | ||

1 IV with 2 or more levels (independent groups) | quantitative | one-way ANOVA |

ordinal | Kruskal Wallis | |

categorical | Chi- square test | |

1 IV with 2 levels (dependent/matched groups) | quantitative | paired t-test |

ordinal | Wilcoxon signed ranks test | |

categorical | McNemar | |

1 IV with 2 or more levels (dependent/matched groups) | quantitative | one-way repeated measures ANOVA |

ordinal | Friedman test | |

categorical | repeated measures logistic regression | |

2 or more IVs (independent groups) | quantitative | factorial ANOVA |

ordinal | ordered logistic regression | |

categorical | factorial logistic regression | |

1 quantitative IV | quantitative | correlation |

simple linear regression | ||

ordinal | non-parametric correlation | |

categorical | simple logistic regression | |

1 or more quantitative IVs and/or 1 or more categorical IVs | quantitative | multiple regression |

analysis of covariance | ||

categorical | multiple logistic regression | |

discriminant analysis |

Examples

Is there an association between sun exposure and skin cancer?

Sun exposure (IV) = nominal/categorical

Skin cancer (DV) = nominal/categorical

Correct test = Chi-square

Is there a difference in asthma prevalence between males and females in the United States?

Gender (IV) = nominal/categorical

Asthma (DV) = scale/quantitative

Correct test = T-test

Work with Instructor and GA

Contact your instructor or GA to ensure that your research question will work well for all assignments in the course.

Be sure to review feedback on each assignment, as they all build into one final paper.

Week 4 = Topic, problem statement, annotated bibliography

Week 6 = Literature review, hypothesis, and significance

Week 7 = Methods

Week 9 = Results, codebook, syntax

Week 11 = Final Paper, synthesize all sections and add interpretation