Chat with us, powered by LiveChat How do open borders in Europe pose a threat to all of Europe from terrorism? This assignment will require the use of our textbook, outside sources, and Scripture, if appropriate. ?Please an - Essayabode

 How do open borders in Europe pose a threat to all of Europe from terrorism?

This assignment will require the use of our textbook, outside sources, and Scripture, if appropriate.  Please answer in a paper of 3-4 pages. Document all your sources in APA format.  Superior presentations typically use 6-8 academic sources, which can include your textbook and Scripture, if appropriate.

02/09/22

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Terrorism Today: The Past, The Players, The Future

6th Edition

Chapter 6 Western Europe

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Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Outcomes

6.1 Restate the rise and decline of the ETA in Spain

6.2 Describe the rise of right and left-wing terrorist movements in Europe

6.3 Analyze the rise of Islamic extremism linked to al Qaeda

6.4 Describe the role played by al Qaeda in Germany in the build up to the 9-11 attacks on the Untied States

6.5 Discuss the threat from Muslims returning from Syria and Iraq to mainland Europe

6.6 Discuss how the Schengen Agreement helps facilitate attacks such as those in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016)

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Figure 6.1

Map of Spain

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6.1 Restate the rise and decline of the ETA in Spain

• Basque region – occupies northern border with France – Pyrenees

• Basques – own language – want national identity and self-government

• General Franco – the Basque region became part of Spain; outlawed both their language and culture

• 1950’s – rebirth of nationalist fervor

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6.1 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)

➢Basque Fatherland and Freedom

➢Promote Basque independence

➢Not originally formed as a terrorist organization

➢Oppressed by General Franco regime

➢Violent retaliation

➢Members – young, frustrated nationalist, anger at loss of autonomy

➢Fragmented, reformed, dis-banded & reformed

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6.1 ETA First Assembly

➢May 1962 – small student led group

➢Struggle against colonial rule – how to move forward

➢Defined ETA as “Revolutionary Movement for National Liberation” – path toward terrorism

➢Anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist

➢1970 – began to arm with weapons and explosives

➢Trained in Yemen with PFLP

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6.1 ETA progression and disunity

➢ETA – split 1966 – created sub-groups

➢ETA Zara and ETA Berri and ETA Military

➢Began to create cell structures (PIRA example)

➢Sleeping Commandos

➢Used robbery and extortion to finance operations

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6.1 ETA – Terrorism

➢ 1973 – assassination Luis Carrero Blanco

➢ Majority of Basques not in favor of violent action

➢ Severely weakened by the 1990’s

➢ 1999 – Secret meetings with Spanish government

➢ Rebuilding – Herri Batesuna Party denies links to ETA

➢ Began bombing campaign – target tourist industry

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6.1 Herri Batasuna Party – ETA links

➢ Leader Arnoldo Ortiz – denies links to ETA

➢ Government – believes Herri is ETA

➢ 2002 – bombing campaign

➢ 2003 – Spain declares Herri illegal

➢ 2003 – law banning political support to terrorism

➢ Impossible to re-merge under new name

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6.2 Describe the rise of right and left-wing terrorist movements in Europe

❑ 1960’s and 70’s – France – safe haven for PFLP and Japanese Red Army

❑ Safe Houses – Paris

❑ Attacks – Europe and Middle East

❑ Extreme Right – Anders Breivik – Norway

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6.2 Japanese Red Army

➢ JRA – Worldwide Marxist revolution

➢ Strong support – Palestinian cause

➢ Attack – Lod Airport – Israel

➢ 1988 – killed two U.S. sailors in Italy

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6.2 France a tolerant host?

✓ Paris – home to Corsican separatists

✓ Paris – home to left-wing Action Direct

✓ Paris – home to Armata Corsa (Corsican Army)

✓ Paris – home to Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia – ASALA – (targets Turkey)

✓ Paris – one time home to the PLO and Algerian Islamic group GIA

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6.2 al Qaeda in France

✓ French colonial past – French speaking migrants from Algeria

✓ Planning for 9-11 attacks 2001

✓ Second generation Muslim migrants

✓ Indoctrination – the Mosques of Europe

✓ Richard Reid – Courtailler brothers

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6.2 Islamist calls to attack France

➢ 2011 – Jihadist forum postings

➢ Prepare attacks, including assassination, suicide bombings and chemical and biological attacks

➢ Annihilate and extirpate

➢ Worst migrant crisis since end of WWII

➢ Foreign jihadists and home grown radicalized extremists preparation for attack

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Figure 6.7

Map of Greece

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6.2 Greece – November 17

➢ Marxist – Leninist Terrorist group

➢ Anti-imperialist, anti-U.S., anti-Europe and anti- NATO

➢ Origins in the Greek university campuses

➢ Operated for twenty eight years

➢ Greek inability to halt or disrupt the organization

➢ 1975 – assassination – U.S. diplomat Richard Walsh

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Figure 6.2

Map of France

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6.2 Charlie Hebdo and Bataclan

• Charlie Hebdo – Anti religious – satirical magazine

• Strong left-wing bias – cartoon depictions

• Daytime attack on Hebdo offices

• Well panned attack – three man attack team

• Automatic weapons – well trained team

• Two attackers killed in police shootout

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Figure 6.3 Charlie Hebdo and Bataclan

Figure 6.3 Map showing attack locations in Paris

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6.2 Charlie Hebdo and Bataclan

➢ Soft targets – football stadium, cafes and restaurants

➢ Coordinated attack teams

➢ Paris – Bataclan – Concert Hall

➢ Three attacks times around 8.20 p.m.

➢ Over one hundred and fifty dead and three hundred injured

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Figure 6.4

Map of Germany

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6.2 Germany – Red Army Faction / Baader- Meinhof

❑ 1960’s – Berlin Free University student movement

❑ Led by Gudrun Ensslin

❑ Small but committed group of Marxists

❑ To engage U.S. in combative role in Germany

❑ Extend Vietnam War to Germany

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6.2 Baader-Meinhof

• 1971 – Baader-Meinhof formed

• Lawyer Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof – Editor Kronkert

• Sponsored by communist groups in East Germany

• Meinhof trains at PLO camp in Jordan

• Meinhof & Ensslin assist in Baader prison escape

• 1977 – Meinhof and Baader commit suicide in jail

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6.2 Neo Nazi Groups

➢Right-wing – anti Semitic, anti-Communist, anti- Immigration

➢Neo-Nazi skinheads, National Offensive, German Alternative, National Front and the National List

➢Attacks against Turkish migrants and Jews

➢By late 1990’s many cities were devoid of migrants due to violence and intimidation

➢Far right skinhead groups also present in Italy, France and the U.K.

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6.2 Nazi Germany

➢1930’s Nazis and Hitler Youth

➢Extreme right-wing

➢Target Jewish communities – political gains

➢The Third Reich – freedom of press and outlawing all political parties except National Socialists (Nazi)

➢Gestapo, Holocaust, Final solution

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6.2 Extreme Right – Anders Breivik

❑ Extreme right-wing Christian

❑ Vehemently anti-immigration

❑ Lone Wolf attack – Oslo

❑ Confusion – change of tactics

❑ Political target – Youth movement of Norway’s ruling party

❑ European Declaration of Independence

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6.3 Analyze the rise of Islamic extremism linked to al Qaeda

➢ Salafist movement – present in Germany

➢ Trained fighters – Afghanistan – Soviet invasion

➢ Milli Gorus – large number of members in Germany

➢ German mosques and universities – many north African and Middle East students

➢ Mohamed Atta and Marwan al Shehi

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6.3 Islamic Jihad Union & German Mujahideen

✓ Germans joined IJU and al Qaeda in Pakistan

✓ Migrate back to Germany – Lone wolf attacks

✓ Social media – propaganda machine (Taliban)

✓ German Mujahideen – offshoot of IJU in Germany

✓ Reasons to attack – – German presence in Afghanistan

– burqa banned in several EU countries

– Dutch and Swedish insults to the Prophet

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6.3 al Qaeda and Islamic State

❑ Post 9-11 – Afghanistan – Iraq invasion

❑ Al Qaeda and affiliates decentralised – escaped from Afghanistan – centered in Europe

❑ Returning EU jihadists from war in Syria and Iraq

❑ Planning attacks within EU – ease of movement between EU states

❑ EU – unprepared for the threat posed by returning jihadists

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6.4 Describe the role played by al Qaeda in Germany in the build up to the 9-11 attacks on the United States

➢ Large Islamist populations – students and jihadists – Africa and Middle East

➢ German Universities – the Hamburg Cell

➢ Planning and preparation by bin Laden and al Zawahiri

➢ Training and prepping for attack on U.S

➢ Little interference from authorities – free movement

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6.4 Hamburg Cell – activities and responsibilities

✓Complex planning – execution

✓Leaders to evaluate, approve and supervise the planning

✓Recruit, indoctrinate train, and direct operatives

✓Intelligence assessments – strengths and weaknesses

✓Financial transactions and money movement

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6.5 Discuss the threat from Muslims returning from Syria and Iraq to mainland Europe

➢ Migrants from civil war in Syria and Iraq

➢ Migrants/Refugees/Jihadists

➢ Entry controls to European Union

➢ Migrants spread to ghettos of Germany, France and Belgium

➢ Vetting of migrants – refugee or returning jihadist?

➢ Lone wolf and sponsored attacks directed by IS

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6.5 Coordinated attacks on Europe

❑ Paris, France, Brussels, Belgium 2015 and 2016

❑ Brussels – 2016 – airport and metro station

❑ Three man teams of attackers

❑ Bombs – suicide mission

❑ Soft targets – airline check in area and public access areas of metro station

❑ TATP – explosive mixture used in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016)

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6.6 Discuss how the Schengen Agreement helps facilitate attacks such as those in Paris (2015) and Brussels (2016)

➢ Single state – twenty-six member countries and no internal borders – facilitates free travel within

➢ Backbone of borderless states of Europe

➢ Muslim populations have risen dramatically

➢ Abolition of border controls within EU

➢ Area covering over 400 million people, and 1.7 million square miles

➢ Belgium – Muslim population doubles in 12 years

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6.6 EU economic downturn

➢ Economic downturn – 21st century

➢ High unemployment in the Muslim populations of EU

➢ Frequent discrimination within the job market

➢ State welfare system – time for indoctrination by radical imams

➢ Young men feel disenfranchised and alienated from society – potent opportunity for extremism

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6. Review Questions (1 of 2)

1. Explain why the Basque separatist campaign may have failed to achieve its goals.

2. List the reasons for the collision of religion with freedom of speech and expression in Western Europe.

3. Describe the conditions that led to the creation and rise of Germany’s Red Brigade.

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6. Review Questions (2 of 2)

4. Describe how the Schengen Agreement has aided the facilitation of mass migration and opportunities for terrorists

5. Apply the attack cycle for both the Paris and Brussels terror attacks in 2015 and 2016.

6. Recount the Munich Olympic Games attack that led to the creation of the counterterror group.

7. Summarize the extreme right-wing attacks in Norway that were at first thought to be that of Islamists.

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Terrorism Today: The Past, The Players, The Future

6th Edition

Chapter 5 Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Outcomes (1 of 2)

5.1 Describe the incidents and events that characterized the ‘Troubles’

5.2 Analyze the structures of the Catholic and Protestant terrorist organizations operating in Northern Ireland

5.3 List the political objectives of Sinn Fein

5.4 Describe how Islamist radical organizations have operated in a liberal society

5.5 Summarize the value and effectiveness of the Diplock Commission

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Learning Outcomes (2 of 2)

5.6 Discuss how UK’s Counterterror legislation has evolved to control the radical jihadist threat to the United Kingdom

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Figure 5.1

Map of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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5.1 Describe the incidents and events that characterized the ‘Troubles’

➢1968-1998 – The Troubles

➢1968 – Civil rights marches – Northern Ireland

➢Martin Luther King

➢Protestant discrimination – jobs and housing

➢Centuries of social injustice

➢Central issues – discrimination and religion

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5.1 The ‘Troubles’

➢Civil Rights – Sectarian violence

➢Police – request military support

➢British Army – not trained for the role

➢Sectarian violence – Belfast and Londonderry

➢Protestant and Catholic neighborhoods

➢Official IRA

➢Provisional IRA

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5.1 Internment

❑ Failed experiment – reintroduced in 1971

❑ Aimed to control fervent Irish republican movement

❑ Poor intelligence – few IRA men interned

❑ Special Powers Act – indefinite detention without trial

❑ 900 interned – did little to prevent the ongoing violence

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Figure 5.4

Mural commemorating the death of Bobby Sands who died on hunger strike in Maze Prison

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5.1 PIRA – International terrorism

❑ PIRA – North Africa, Europe, Middle East and North and South America

❑ PIRA – most well trained and equipped

❑ Libya – weapons and explosives

❑ Active Service Units – three man cell structure

❑ PIRA – target for British SAS

❑ Gibraltar

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Figure 5.7

Mural commemorating the deaths of Sean Savage and Dan McCann killed by British SAS in Gibraltar in March 1988 – Courtesy Chief Superintendent Tony Forward

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5.2 Analyze the structures of the Catholic and Protestant terrorist organizations operating in Northern Ireland

❑ Loyalist v Republican (Protestant v Catholic)

❑ Para-militaries – set up along religious lines

❑ Turf wars – violent sectarianism

❑ UDA/UFF – largest of loyalist para-militaries

❑ UDA – proscribed 1992 – politically savvy

❑ Red Hand of Ulster – Ulster Volunteer Force

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5.2 Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)

❑ Offshoot from original IRA

❑ Uses various other names – HQ in Dublin

❑ Small numbers – rejects both IRA and PIRA ideology

❑ Active Belfast and Londonderry – socialist republic

❑ Removal of all British troops from Ireland

❑ Assassination – Airey Neeve – London

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5.2 Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)

❑ Originates from 1912 – opposed Home Rule

❑ Early 1970’s – Protestant (loyalist) para-military

❑ Eighteen hundred members

❑ Protestant heritage – secure constitutional position with United Kingdom

❑ Indiscriminate violent attacks – Catholic civilians

❑ Operates – Shankhill Road area Belfast and County Antrim

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5.2 Orange Volunteers (OV)

✓Origins – Protestant Orange Order

✓Marching season – flashpoint

✓Small group – unsophisticated attacks – pipe bombs

✓Turf wars

✓Good Friday Agreement

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5.2 Turf Wars

➢1970’s early days of the Troubles – tit for tat killings

➢Motivation – sectarian hatred

➢Regional feuding – part ideological part criminal (material gains)

➢Criminal control of housing districts in Belfast and Londonderry

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5.3 List the political objectives of Sinn Fein

✓ Irish Republicans – a united Ireland

✓ Long held demand – separation from U.K

✓ Goulding – Catholic and Protestant Workers Group

✓ Sinn Fein – political wing of current Irish republican movement (PIRA)

✓ Adams and McGuiness elected as Members of Parliament (House of Commons U.K.)

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5.4 Describe how Islamist radical organizations have operated in a liberal society

❑ Three million Muslims – resident in U.K.

❑ Many escaped repressive regimes

❑ Liberal society – made easy opportunity to set up Islamist charities and organizations

❑ Wanted terrorists found sanctuary in U.K.

❑ Hizb ut-Tahrir remained legal in U.K.

❑ Islamist groups operating in U.K

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5.4 Islamist /Terrorist Groups in U.K.

✓Abu Qatada, Omar Bakr Mohammed, Abu Hamza al-Masri

✓Hamas, Shining Path, Gama’a al-Islamiyya, Hezbollah, LTTE and Kurdistan Workers Party

✓Radical preaching (free speech) – Finsbury Park Mosque London

✓Connection to terrorist plots – Richard Reid

✓Omar Bakr Mohammed – al-Muhajiroun – glorification of terrorism

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5.4 Tablighi Jamaat

➢ Radical – Extreme Sunni Islamist revivalist movement

➢ 1920’s – spread from India

➢ Europe HQ – Dewsbury, Yorkshire. U.K.

➢ Following – from across Europe and U.K.

➢ 2005 London bomber Mohammed Siddique Khan