Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Discuss how planning and conducting business research for reports affects your credibility.? - Essayabode

Because learning changes everything.® Chapter 12 Research and Business Proposals and Planning for Business Reports © 2021 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill. Learning Objectives 1 12.1 Explain how planning and conducting business research for reports impacts your credibility. 12.2 Create research objectives that are specific and achievable. 12.3 Explain principles of effective design for survey questions and choices. 12.4 Develop charts and tables to concisely display data and accentuate key messages. © McGraw Hill Learning Objectives 2 12.5 Evaluate the usefulness of data sources for business research. 12.6 Conduct secondary research to address a business problem. 12.7 Evaluate research data, charts, and tables for fairness and effectiveness. © McGraw Hill Analyzing Your Audience for Business Reports Developing Research-Based Business Reports • Identify what decision makers want to accomplish. • © McGraw Hill Consider your target audience of decision makers’ primary business goals, research objectives, and expectations. Gathering Information through Primary Research 1 Primary Research Secondary Research • The analysis of data that you, people from your organization, or others under your direction have collected. • The analysis of data collected by others with no direction from you or members of your organization. • Generally most useful for business reports. • Common types include analysis of internal data, survey research, focus groups, interviews, and case studies. © McGraw Hill Gathering Information through Primary Research 2 Survey Research • Increasingly common because of the ease of administering online surveys. • Generally involves written questionnaires. • Closed questions. • Open-ended questions. © McGraw Hill Table 12.1 Creating Research Objectives Less Effective Determine how satisfied our conference guests are. More Effective Determine guest satisfaction This objective is specific. The among conference attendees for statement leads to a focused key conference amenities and approach to research. services. Less Effective Understand VR technologies. More Effective Identify use cases of and market This objective is specific. It demand for VR technologies in focuses on a context that is group tourism. relevant to the Aicasus Tours. © McGraw Hill This objective is not specific enough. The statement does not lead to a focused approach to research. This objective is not specific. It is too broad and lacks context. Create Surveys 1 Online Surveys • You can quickly get the responses of dozens if not hundreds of colleagues, current or potential customers, or members of other groups of interest. • You can dump the data into a spreadsheet. © McGraw Hill Create Surveys 2 Principles for Survey Questions • Simple to answer. • Non-leading. • Exhaustive and unambiguous. • Limited to a single idea. © McGraw Hill Create Surveys 3 Survey Questions Should Be Simple to Answer • Should contain short questions and short response options. • Read in 10 to 20 seconds per question. • Answer in a few seconds. © McGraw Hill Table 12.2a Creating Simple Survey Questions On a scale from 1, Less Effective not satisfied, to 4, extremely satisfied, how satisfied were you in the following areas related to your conference experience (if you have no opinion or did not use the following services, simply mark N/A)? © McGraw Hill The question is 39 words long. Many respondents will be confused about how to answer the questions without labels for the numerical values. Table 12.2b Creating Simple Survey Questions How satisfied More Effective were you with the following aspects of your conference experience? © McGraw Hill The question contains just 12 words. Formatting and labels allow respondents to quickly and precisely process the information. Table 12.2c Creating Simple Survey Questions Rank-order each of the following guest services This question is Less complicated to Effective and amenities in providing value to you during your conference stay. (Rank-order each item. Place a 1 next to your favorite item, a 2 next to your second-favorite item, and so on. Do not place a number next to an amenity or service that you did not use during your stay.) ___ Spa ___ Fitness center ___ Outdoor swimming pool ___ Prestigio golf course ___ Prestigio comedy club ___ One of the Prestigio restaurants © McGraw Hill answer. Many respondents will not spend time to carefully rank each item. Other responses may be inaccurate or unreliable. Table 12.2d Creating Simple Survey Questions Which of the More Effective following GUEST SERVICES AND AMENITIES did you use during your conference stay? Check ALL that apply. © McGraw Hill This question is easy to answer. Respondents are given just one choice and can make this judgment within a few seconds. Create Surveys 4 Survey Questions Should Be Non-Leading • Do not suggest an answer. • © McGraw Hill Otherwise, it will produce unreliable and unusable information. Table 12.3 Creating Non-Leading Survey Choices Less Effective To show my support for the green meeting movement, I would recommend the Prestigio as a good site for a business conference. 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree This survey question is leading. It suggests to respondents a correct or right answer. It would not provide reliable or useful results. More Effective I would recommend the Prestigio as a good site for a business conference. 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree This survey question is nonleading. It does not suggest or manipulate a response. It would likely provide useful data. © McGraw Hill Create Surveys 5 Survey Choices Should Be Exhaustive and Unambiguous • Exhaustive: All possibilities are available. • Unambiguous: Only one choice is available. Survey Questions Should Contain One Idea © McGraw Hill Table 12.4 Creating Exhaustive and Unambiguous Survey Choices Less Effective Age: A. Under 30 B. 31 to 40 C. 41 to 50 D. 50 to 64 More Effective Age: These choices are both exhaustive and A. 30 and under unambiguous. Any respondent of any age B. 31 to 40 would find just one correct response. C. 41 to 50 D. 51 to 65 E. Over 65 © McGraw Hill These choices are neither exhaustive nor unambiguous. They are not exhaustive because respondents who are 65 and over would not have a choice to select. They are not unambiguous because two of the choices overlap (C and D); in other words, a person who is 50 could select either option. Table 12.5 Creating Survey Questions with a Single Idea Less Effective How much do you know about green meetings and possible savings on these meetings? A. Nothing at all B. A little C. Some D. A lot This question contains two ideas: (1) what the respondent knows about green meetings and (2) what the respondent knows about possible savings on green meetings. This is confusing to the respondent and impossible for the researcher to interpret. More Effective How much do you know about green meeting options for your business? A. Nothing at all B. A little C. Some D. A lot This question contains one idea. As a result, the question is easy for the respondent to answer and easy for the researcher to analyze. © McGraw Hill Analyze Your Data Advice for Analyzing Data • Learn about forecasting and other forms of statistical and quantitative analysis. • Learn about spreadsheet, database, and statistical software. • Rely on others in your analysis. • Stay focused on your business problem and look for the big picture. © McGraw Hill Communicate with Charts and Tables Statistics and Figures • Don’t overload your audience members with data. • Focus on the main (nonnumerical) message. © McGraw Hill 1 Communicate with Charts and Tables Designing Effective Charts • Can express a strong message and leave a lasting visual impression on viewers and readers. • Have the potential to draw readers into a document or presentation almost instantaneously. • Planning is key. © McGraw Hill 2 Designing Effective Charts Line Charts • Useful for depicting events and trends over time. Pie Charts • Useful for illustrating the pieces within a whole. Bar Charts • Useful to compare amounts or quantities. © McGraw Hill Create Effective Charts Criteria: 1. Title descriptiveness. 2. Focal points. 3. Information sufficiency. 4. Ease of processing. 5. Takeaway message. © McGraw Hill Figure 12.2 Less Effective and More Effective Line Charts Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill Design and Formatting of Line Charts Key Design and Formatting Problems in Less Effective Chart Adjustments in More Effective Chart Nondescriptive, bland title. It does Title descriptiveness not tie into any primary message. Title and subtitle focus on intentional improvement. Focal points Lacks focal points. All parts of the chart are treated equally—thus, there is no emphasis or indication of what should be the key points of comparison. The callout box focuses attention on the staff and service initiative as the cause of rising customer satisfaction. A darker, thicker line with a bold label draws attention to the Prestigio data series. Information sufficiency Inadequate information about the rating scale. What do the numbers represent? What is the year for which data was gathered? The note provides information about the rating scale. © McGraw Hill 1 Design and Formatting of Line Charts Key Design and Formatting Problems in Less Effective Chart Adjustments in More Effective Chart Ease of processing Legend placed on the right side. This forces the reader to move back and forth between the legend and the data series in the plot area. Further, the colors do not aid in the information presentation. Instead of a legend, data labels are placed directly at the end of each data series (line) to make identification of each hotel’s performance easier. Additionally, the color scheme is kept to a minimum, thereby prominently displaying the dramatic rise in ratings. Takeaway message Staff and service ratings have improved for the Prestigio over the past year. However, the message requires too much effort for the viewer and could easily be missed or forgotten quickly. All elements of the chart capture the message that the Prestigio staff and service initiative has successfully improved customer satisfaction compared to competitors. © McGraw Hill 2 Figure 12.3 Less Effective and More Effective Pie Charts Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill Design and Formatting of Pie Charts 1 Key Design and Formatting Problems in Less Effective Chart Adjustments in More Effective Chart Title Descriptive but unexciting title. Descriptive title focuses attention on the fact that these are 3-day conference attendees. Focal points The main focal point is the large pie slice. The colors used give a very dense and dark feeling to the visual. The primary focal point is the slice highlighting those not purchasing any Internet service. It is labeled more effectively (“No Purchase of Internet” versus “0 days” in the less effective chart) and is written in bold text on a darker-colored background to draw attention to this key point. Information sufficiency Absence of data label on each slice makes this chart difficult to interpret. Data labels are provided in percentages. © McGraw Hill Design and Formatting of Pie Charts 2 Key Design and Formatting Problems in Less Effective Chart Adjustments in More Effective Chart Ease of processing Legend is placed on the bottom. This forces the reader to move back and forth between the legend and the pie slices in the plot area. Also, the breakaway, 3-D shape of the object skews the data. The pie slices are not arranged for fastest processing. Data series names and data labels are placed together in the pie slices to foster easy processing. The largest pie slice is located at 12 o’clock for quick recognition (most people read pie charts beginning at 12 and continue to read in a clockwise direction). Takeaway message Most conference attendees do not purchase Internet services. However, getting the message requires a great deal of effort and could easily be missed or forgotten quickly. All aspects of the chart collectively demonstrate that conference attendees are unlikely to purchase Internet services. © McGraw Hill Figure 12.4 Less Effective and More Effective Bar Charts Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill Design and Formatting of Bar Charts 1 Key Design and Adjustments in More Formatting Problems Effective Chart in Less Effective Chart Title Nondescriptive, bland descriptiveness title. Title immediately recognizes the Prestigio’s leading position in dining ratings. Focal points Lacks focal points. All bars are treated equally. Darker color of the Prestigio bar draws attention to it. Information sufficiency Inadequate information about the rating scale. A note about the rating scale and inclusion of data labels provides sufficient information. © McGraw Hill Design and Formatting of Bar Charts 2 Key Design and Formatting Problems in Less Effective Chart Adjustments in More Effective Chart Ease of processing The legend is unnecessary and distracting. The items are not ordered effectively (the order is neither alphabetical nor quantitative) to help draw rapid comparisons. The large gap size compared to bar width reduces quick processing. The axis increments are in rarely used units (generally, units in multiples of 2, 5, and 10 are more natural). The chart is arranged in descending order by average ratings to make comparisons easier. Bar width in comparison to gap width is most conducive to rapid processing. Takeaway message The takeaway message is that the Prestigio has higher dining ratings. However, the message is weak and could easily be glossed over or forgotten. The Prestigio occupies the proud position of leading its competitors in dining ratings. This is a strong, optimistic, and memorable message. © McGraw Hill Table 12.6 Formatting Guidelines for Specific Chart Types Chart Type Formatting Guidelines All charts • • • • • • • Line • Scale should be about two-thirds of the range included in the chart. • Series names should be placed on or attached directly to lines. • Only four or fewer data series (lines) should be included. Pie • Largest slice should begin at 12 o’clock and go clockwise; second-largest slice should begin at 12 o’clock and go counterclockwise. • Exploding slices should be used sparingly. • Pie slices should complete a whole (add up to 100% of a data series). Bar • • • • © McGraw Hill Ensure that all data is appropriately labeled. Avoid using too many bright colors; they can be distracting. Use darker colors to represent your most important data series. Avoid unusual fonts or too many special effects. Avoid 3-D charts. Ensure that all text is horizontal. Avoid white type on dark backgrounds in most cases. Bars should be about twice the width of the space in between bars. Baseline should always be zero. Bars should be arranged in ascending or descending order in most cases. Legend should only be used if the chart has two or more data series. Figure 12.6a Less Effective Table Survey Results During the three days of the conference you attended at the Prestigio, how many days did you purchase Internet service? Days of Internet Service 0 1 2 3 All Respondents 154 15 31 36 Male 82 8 15 22 Female 72 7 16 14 Under $30,000 15 0 1 2 $30,000 to $39,999 41 4 3 7 $40,000 to $49,999 48 3 11 12 $50,000 to $74,999 33 6 7 8 $75,000 to $100,000 12 2 4 4 Over $100,000 5 0 5 3 Gender Income © McGraw Hill Figure 12.6b More Effective Table Internet Service Purchases among Conference Guests Days of Internet Service Purchased (Number of Respondents in Parentheses) 0 Days 1 Day 2 Days 3 Days 65.5% (154) 6.4% (15) 13.2% (31) 15.3% (36) 236 Male 64.6% (82) 6.3% (8) 11.8% (15) 17.3% (22) 127 Female 66.1% (72) 6.4% (7) 14.7% (16) 12.8% (14) 109 Under $30,000 83.3% (15) 0.0% (0) 5.6% (1) 11.1% (6) 18 $30,000 to $39,999 74.5% (41) 7.3% (4) 5.5% (3) 12.7% (7) 55 $40,000 to $49,999 64.9% (48) 4.1% (3) 14.9% (11) 16.2% (12) 74 $50,000 to $74,999 61.1% (33) 11.1% (6) 13.0% (7) 14.8% (8) 54 $75,000 to $100,000 54.5% (12) 9.1% (2) 18.2% (4) 18.2% (4) 22 Over $100,000 38.5% (5) 0.0% (0) 38.5% (5) 23.1% (3) 13 All Respondents Total (#) Gender Income © McGraw Hill Table 12.7 Formatting Guidelines for Tables Issue Formatting Guidelines Order • Order your entries appropriately (alphabetical or numerical order of categories, or ascending/descending order of values of comparison). Indentation • Indent or otherwise set apart items within a category. Data series • Present comparative data series vertically. Column/row labels • Label columns and rows effectively. Grid lines • Use grid lines for every three to five rows at natural breaks (new categories); this simple design technique allows readers to easily scan rows. • Avoid grid lines on all borders; these tend to clutter the table. • Avoid alternating background colors on rows in most cases; this is also distracting and unnecessary. © McGraw Hill Gathering Information through Secondary Research Choose a Research Topic • Avoid settling on your topic too quickly and pace your research. • Choose your topic strategically. • Define the scope of your project. • Find ways to make your research more analytical. • Talk to others who can help you. © McGraw Hill Evaluate Data Quality 1 Important Issues in Evaluating Data • Reliability. • Relevance. • Adaptability. • Expertise. • Biases. © McGraw Hill Evaluate Data Quality 2 Secondary Research Sources • White papers. • Industry publications. • Business periodicals. • Scholarly journals. • External blogs. • Business and management books. © McGraw Hill Table 12.9a Strengths and Limitations of Data Quality for Primary and Secondary Research Sources Reliability Relevance Adaptability Expert- Bias based Primary research High High High Medium –High Goals and preexisting notions of the researcher White papers Low–High Medium– High Low Medium –High Organizational mission and objectives Medium– Industry publications High Medium– High Low Medium –High Mission of the publication/editing team Medium– Business publications High Low– Medium Low Low– High Mission of the publication/editing team © McGraw Hill Table 12.9b Strengths and Limitations of Data Quality for Primary and Secondary Research Sources Reliability Relevance Adaptability ExpertBased Bias Scholarly journals High Low Low High Theoretical significance External blogs, wikis, and other websites Low–High Medium– High Low Low–High Writers’ career objectives Business books Medium– High Low–High Low Medium– High © McGraw Hill The latest, greatest idea mentality; easy fixes Conduct Library Research Library Sources • Books across a wide range of disciplines and topics. • Digital resources. • Company and industry reports and scholarly journals. • Online databases. © McGraw Hill Table 12.10 Strategies for Using Search Terms Effectively Strategy Example Use Boolean operators. “Virtual reality” and “Group tours” Virtual reality and Group tours Virtual reality or Group tours 328 145,822 7,928,251 Use alternative keywords. “Augmented reality” and “Global tourism” “Emerging technologies” and “Historical tours” “VR headsets” and Tourism 62 © McGraw Hill Number of Hits in ProQuest 8 305 Document Your Research Excellent documentation helps decision makers evaluate the credibility of your report. Use a system for documenting sources. © McGraw Hill Use Online Information for Business Research Strategies • Always evaluate data quality. • Do more than just “Google it.” • • Go to reputable business and industry websites and conduct searches. • Find online discussions and forums about your selected topic. • Search beyond text-based information. Be persistent. © McGraw Hill Apply the FAIR Test to Your Research Data and Charts 1 Be FAIR • Examine all the available facts and interpret them from various perspectives. • Don’t make assumptions or draw conclusions beforehand. © McGraw Hill Apply the FAIR Test to Your Research Data and Charts 2 Don’t Mislead • Don’t cherry-pick data. • Provide all the relevant facts, even if they don’t fit into convenient conclusions. • Grant access to your data. • Remember the impacts of your data on others and present it with respect. © McGraw Hill Table 12.11 Creating Fair Charts Less Fair By displaying this chart on an axis that contains only part of the scale and no note or legend, this chart exaggerates the differences in cleanliness ratings. More Fair By displaying the entire scale and providing a note about the ratings, this chart accurately reflects the differences in cleanliness ratings. It clearly shows that although the Prestigio is lower than its competitors, it still has an average cleanliness rating that is good. Note: Ratings are on a scale from 1, poor, to 5, excellent. All ratings were retrieved from the Wahoo travel website and are averaged for each month across the year. Access the text alternative for slide images. © McGraw Hill Business Communication: Developing Leaders for a Networked World, 4e Chapter 12 Because learning changes everything. www.mheducation.com © McGraw Hill © 2021 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill. ®