Chat with us, powered by LiveChat An explanation of your philosophy of nursing practice that briefly describes your nursing experience and area(s) of expertise. Be sure to explain the beliefs that inform your philosophy of - Essayabode

An explanation of your philosophy of nursing practice that briefly describes your nursing experience and area(s) of expertise. Be sure to explain the beliefs that inform your philosophy of nursing practice and your goals for expanding your knowledge and training as a DNP (e.g., embracing diversity, global health issues, and collaboration). Then, explain the DNP role as a social change agent and recommend at least one way you will advocate for positive social change as a Walden DNP. Be specific and provide examples, with all citations in APA 7 style. (hypertension and medication management in underserved communities)

Phi osophy, Science, and Nursing Melanie McEwen

Largely due to the work of nursing scientists, nursing theorists, and nursing schol- ars over the post five decodes, nursing hos been recognized os both on emerging profession and on academic discipline. Crucial to the attainment of this distinction hove been numerous discussions regarding the phenomena of concern to nurses and countless efforts to enhance involvement in theory utilization, theory generation, and theory testing to direct research and improve practice.

A review of the nursing literature from the late 1970s until the present shows sporadic discussion of whether nursing is a profession, o science, or arn academic discipline. These discussions ore sometimes pleading, frequently esoteric, and ocm- sionolly confusing. Questions that hove been raised include: What defines o profes- sion? What constitutes on academic discipline? What is nursing science? Why is it important for nursing to be seen os o profession or on academic discipline?

Nursing as a Profession


I 11 the p.1st, there has been rnnsidembk discussion .1bout whetlu:r nursing is ,1 proti:s- sion or ,lll occup,1tion. This is for nur~e~ to considcr for scn:r,11 n:.1son~. An occupJtion i~ a job or ,l c.u-en, where.1~ .1 profrssion i~ .1 learned n>~·.niun or ocnrpa- rion th.n h.1~ .1 statu~ of ~uperioriry .md precedence within .1 di,·i~ion of work. In gen- eral term~, uc~·up.nions require widely ,·arying k,•cls of training or niucation, , ·arying kn:1s of skill, .md widely 'Jriablc.: defined knowledge ba~n. [n ~hort, all protc:~siom .ire occupations, but not .1II occupations .u-e profrssions ( Finkelman & Kenner, 2016 l.

Prot~ssions .ire nlued by society because the sen·ices proti:ssionals proYide .1re benefici,11 fix members of the society. C har.1ctabtic:. of .1 protcssion indude (I) de- fined .111d speciJlized knowledge base, ( 2 l control .md Juthority 1J"er training wd education, ( 3) credentialing system or registration to emure competence.:, ( 4) .1ltru- i,tic ~,.:r,·i,.:c.: to ~odc;ty, ( 5) .1 code of ethics, ( 6) fi.,rmal tr,1ining within imtitution:-, , ,f higher education, ( 7) lengthy socialization to th~· prokssion, and ( 8) autonom1' ( con- trol of rrofcssional actiYities) (Ellis & Hartley, 2012; Finkelman & Kenner, 2016;

Chapter 1 Philo5ophy, Science, and Nursing 3

Rutty, 1998 ). Proti:ssiom mmt han: a group ohd10l.1r_.,, inv..:stig.1tnrs, or r..:..,<, \·ho \·ork to continu.1lly adYanct: the k.11<1,Ylcdgc of the protcssion \'ith tht' goal of impro'ing pr.Kticc. i-=i1l.llly. prokssionals .m: re~ponsiblc .rnd .1ecount.1blc to thc pub· lie for their work Hood.201-l ). Tr.1ditio11.11l~·, protcssiom h,Wl' inclmkd thc clergy, la\·, .rnd m-:dicinc.

l 1nril nl',lr tht tnd of the 20th century, nursing was viewed ,ls ,lll on:up.ition rather th.111 a profr!>sion. ~ursing ha_., lud ditliculry being deemed .1 profr..,_.,ion be· c.1w,c 111.111y of thc scn·ices pro,·idcd by nur,;es h;we been pcnxin:d .1.., .111 c:-.ten.<,ion of thmc otkn:d by wi'es .md mother …. :.ddition.1lly, historic.111-, m1r~ing 11.1s bern ,ecn .1s subscn·icnt to medicine, and nur,c~ lun: dcl.1yed in identi~·ing: .md organizing pro· frssional k.110\'lcdge. hrrthennon:, i.:duc.nion nur,-:, is not yet ,, .md tht· three-tier cntry-lcn~l -"Y-"tem ( diplom.1, .1ssociate degm:, .rnd b.1(hdor's dcgn:e l into practice th.H pcr~i<;t.<, ha_., hindered profes..,ionalization bl'.'c.iuse .1 college education is not yet .1 requin:ment. Fin.,11~· • .iutonomy in practice i~ incompktc bcc.1usc nursing is still 1..kpendcm on mcdicirn: to direct much of its practice.

On thc other 11.111d, nuny of the ch.u.1ctcri~tics of a protcs~ion c.rn be oh,erYcd in nursing. lmkcd, nur~ing has .1 -"<>L"i,1! nund.lte to prm·ide health c.m: for clients .it different point_., in the hcalth-illne,_., continuum. There i~ ,1 growing\·kd!,W base, .mthority ma educ.1tion, ,1l trui!..tic service, a code of cthiL"~, and registration require· mcnr~ for practice. :It hough the deb.lte i~ Il<>t closed, it can b1..· successfully argued th.u nur~i ng i~ .rn .,~pi ring. n·oh-ing profr.,sion ( Fi11kdm;1n & Kenner, 2016; Hood, 201-l; Judd & Sitznun, 201-l I. Sec to Practice 1-1 for mmc inform.uion on the future of nursing .1.., a protes~ion.

Nursing as an Academic Discipline Disciplines .u-c di:.tinctiom between bodic~ ofknmdedgi.: found in academic settings. A discipline i~ "a br.1nch of k.nmdcdgc ordcred through the theoric~ .md methods cvoh·ing from more tlun one \'orld,·ic\' of the phenomenon of c1.mccrn" ( Par~e. 1997, p. 74). Jr ha_., .1l,o been termed .1 ticld ofinquiry ch.1r.:ic1crized by a unique per- ~pc:cti,·e and .1 distinl"t w.1~· ofYicwin!:( phenomi.:11.1 (f.1wcc:tt, 2012; Rodgers, 201;;1.

'iewcd .mother way, a di~cipline i~ :i. branch of educ.1tion.1l instruction or ,l de· p.1rtmcnr of learning or knowledge. Instirution_., of higher educ.ltion .m.: org.mizcd .miund dis(iplinc~ into colkgc-", ~chools, .111d dcp.irtments (c:.g., bminc~_., .1dministr.1· tion, ch.:rnistry, history, .md engineering 1.

DiKipline~ ,ire org.mized by ~rrucrure .md tr.1dition. The ~tnKturc of the di..,ci- plinc pro,·ide~ organiz,ltion .1nd determines th-: ,unounr, rcl.uionship, .111d r.1tio of ,:ad1 ryp,: of knowledge that comprises th.: discipline. The tr,1dition of the di~dpline proYide_., the content,\ hi,:h indud1.:, ethic..11, pcrson.11, ..:sthctic, .111d scicntihc knm,·1- edg;c ( Northrup .:t al., 2004; Ri~jor1..t, 20 IO). Ch.u.1cteri..,tic., of di~(iplines include ( 1) .1 distinct pl·r~pccti'c ..1.nd synt.ix, ( 2) determination of what phenomena .ire of interest, ( 3) dctermin.uion of the c(,ll!CXt in which th.: phenomc;na ,uc ,·icwed, ( 4 l de· tennin.nion of que..,tiom to .1sk., (;; J dctnmin::uiun of wh.n methods of study .uc used, ,111d ( 6J detcrrnin.uion of what e'idcn(c is proof Don,1ldson & Crowley, 1978 1.

K.i1uwkdg:c de,·dopment within J. discipline proceeds from scwr;1l philmophi(.il ,md -"Ci..:ntifi<.: pc;rspecrives ~,r wor!.h ie,,·s ( Litchtidd & 1,·1mdt'>ttir, 2008; :-.:..:wm.111, Sime, & Corcoran-Perry, 1991; Ri..,jur1..t, 20 IO; Rodgers, 2015 ). In ~omc c.1s-:s. thnc \'orllfric"·s 111.1y ,n, e to di'idc or ,cgrcg.1te member, of .1 di~cipline. For exampk, in pwcholog;,·, prJ..:titioners might ..:on~idcr rhemscln:, beh.n·iorists,, or any onl'.' of .1 number of othcr di,·i,ion,;.

4 Unit I Introduction to Theory

Link to Practice l – l The Future of Nursing The Institute of Medicine IIOM, 20 l 1) issued o series of sweeping recommendations directed lo the nursing profession. The IOM explained their "vision" is to make quality, patient-centered core accessible for oil Americans. Recommendations included o three- pronged approach to meeting the goal.

The first "message" was directed toward transformation of practice and precipi- tated the notion that nurses should be able to practice to the full extent of their edu- cation. Indeed, the IOM advocated for removal of regulatory, policy, and financial barriers to practice lo ensure that "current and future generations of nurses con deliver safe, quality, patient-centered core across all settings, especially in such areas as pri- mary core and community and public health" jp. 301.

A second key message related to the transformation of nursing education. In this regard, the IOM promotes "seamless academic progression" (p. 30), which includes a goal to increase the number and percentage of nurses who enter !he workforce with a boccaloureole degree or who progress lo the degree early in their career. Specifically, they recommend that 80% of registered nurses (RNs) be bachelor of science in nursing (BSN] prepared by 2020. Lost, the IOM advocated that nurses be full partners with physicians and other health professionals in the attempt to redesign health core in the United States.

These "messages" ore critical to the future of nursing as a profession. Indeed, standardization of entry level into practice al the BSN level, coupled with promotion of advanced education and independent practice, and inclusion as "leaders" in the health care transformation process, will help solidify nursing as o true profession.

An update IIOM, 2016) indicated that there hos been "significant progress" (p. 50) toward reducing APRN scope of practices issues from o notional perspective, as more slates now allow nurse practitioners (NPs] lull practice authority. Furthermore, although there hos been some progress with expansion of the percentage of RNs with o BSN jlrom 49°10 lo 51 %), there is still much to do to meet the gaol of 80%. Finally, the IOM concluded that data ore locking on efforts lo develop the skills and competencies nurses need for leadership. The report reinforced the goal for nurses to seek "leadership positions in order lo contribute their unique perspective and expertise on such issues as health care delivery, quality, and safety" [p. 149].

Si:n:r,11 \'ays of d,1~~il}·ing academic discipline~ h,1, l" bci:n proposi:d. fur in~tanci:, they may be diYidcd into the b,1sic si:il·11ei:s ( physics, biology, chemistry, sociology, anthropology J .111d thl· hum.rnitie~ ( philmophy, l"thics, history, tini: .J.rts L In thi da~- siticarion scheme, it is .1rguabli: m,r~ing. h.1~ ch.1r.1ctcri~rics of both.

Distinctiom nu,· ,1bo bl· m,1dc bcnn:cn .1i:.1dcmi..: di~ciplinc~ (e.g., physii:s, phy~- iolug', ~m:iology, m.Hhl' lll.ltics, history, philmophy l .md prof.:~sion.11 di~i:iplinc~ (e.g., mi:dicine, l.rn·, nur~ing, ,ociJ! \'Ork). In thi~ dJ~~ihi:Jtion si:hr1m.-, the JC.1di:rnic disi:iplincs aim to ''know," .rnd their rhcorie~ .1rc lk~criptiYc in nature. Re,c.uch in ac.1drn1ic diciplines i~ both hJsic .rnd applil·d. Conn:rsl·lv, the proti:ssionJI disci- plines are pr.1i:tii:al in 11.1tun:, ,rnd their rcsc,m.:h tends to b..: mori: pn:scripti,·..: .111d desi:ripri,·i: ( Don.1ldson & Crowley, 1978 ).

Box 1-1

Chapter 1 Philosophy, Science, and Nursing

Theory and the American Association of Col'leges of Nursing Essentials

"The scientific foundation of nursing practice hos expanded and includes o focus on both the natural and sociol sciences. These sciences that provide o foundation for nursing practice include human biology, genomics, the psychosocial sciences os well os the science of complex organizational structures" (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2006, p. 9).


Nursing's kno\'ledge ba~c dr.m·s from many disciplines. In the p:1st, nursing de- pended he.1'ily on physiology, ~oriolo!:-'Y, psycholob'Y, .md mnfo.:inc: to pro'ide .Kademic standing .md rn inform praaice ( Box 1-1 ). In n:cem decJ.dc:~, howe'cr, nursing 11.1~ bt·en seeking ,,·h.11 is uniqta: to nursing .md dewloping tho~c: .1spect.-. into an ,K,1dcmir di~ciplim: ( !me, 2015 ). Arc:.1~ th,lt identi~· nursing .1~ .1 tfotim:t di~cipline Jre .1~ follm,·,:

An idrntiti.1bk philmophy At least one: conceptual framework ( pc:rspectin·) for dc:line.ttion of wh.1t can be ddind a~ nursing icrept.ibk methodologil." .1pproa.:hc~ for the pur!>uit ,llld de,·dopmrnr of knowledge ( Old1ull, J 99S 1

To bt:gin the quest ro ,·alid;1te nur~ing .1.-. both .1 profrs~ion .rnd .111 academic dis- ciplint thi~ ch,1pter pro,·ides .111 o,·en·ie\' of tht· concepts l)f srienrc .md philosoph~-. It o.1111ines the schoob of philmophir,1I thought th.It h.\'e intlucnced nursing and explore~ rhe t'pistemolo1:,~· of nursing to rxplain \ hy the multiple "ways of knowing" is aitical in the quc,t tc)r den·lopmcnt .md .1pplic,1tion of thcor~· in nur~- ing. h11.1lly, this chapter pn:sc:nrs is~L1c:s rdatrd to huw philosophical world'ie\'s .1tfrct knowledge dn·dopment through n:sc:arch. This duptcr concludes wi,rh a Cbe study that depicts how "the \'.1ys of kno\'ing" in nursing .1re u,ed lll1 .1 day-to-day, c:,·en momenr-hy-momcnt, basis by .1II pr,Kticing nurses.

Introduction to Science and Philosophy Scirncc is concerned with c.rnsality ( r.wsc and dlect ). The ~cicntihc appro,Kh to un- derstanding n:'ality is char Jctt:rized by observation, ,·erifi,1hility, ~111d expcricnre; hy- pothesi~ trsting and experimentation .1re ronsidcrc:d scientihc methods. In contr,1st, pbilosop/Jy is roncemed ,,·ith the purpose of hum.rn lite. the 11;1ture ufheing ,md reality, ,111d rhe theory ,md limits of knowledge. Inn,ition, inrrmpcction, and reasoning ar,e t·xamples of philosophical methodologies. Science and philosopll· share: the com· 1110 11 go.ii of increasing knowledge (Fawcett, 2012; Polifroni, 2015; Sih-.1, 1977). The ,ciem:e of .my discipline is tied to irs philmophy, which prm·ides rhe basi~ for undcrst,rnding and de'eloping theories for srience ( Gust.1tsson, 2001; Morse, 10 l 7; Sih-a & Rothbart, 198-!J.

Overview of Science

51."iencc is both .1 pnKcs~ and a product. Parse (1 997 l dehncs science .1s rhe ",theoreti- cal c:xp!Jn,1tion of the subjc.:r of inquir~' and the: mc:thudnlogical prorcss of su~raining kno\'lcdge in J discipline" ( p. 7-l ). Seiencc ha~ .1lsu bet·n described as a wa~· ofc:xpl.lining:

6 Unit I Introduction to Theory

Box 1-2 Characteristics of Science

l . Science must show a certain coherence. 2. Science is concerned with definite fields of knowledge. 3. Science is preferably expressed in universal stotements. 4. The statements of science must be true or probably true. 5. The statements of science must be logically ordered. 6. Science must exploin its investigations and arguments.

Source. Silva ( l 9771

oh~crn:d phe11omc11.1 .1s well .1s .1 sy~tcm of g.uhering, 'cri~·ing, .md systcm.1tizing in- for111.1tion .1hour re.1liry ( Srn:ubcrt & C.1rpcnter, 20 I I). A~ ,1 prncc~~. scicnce i~ d1.1rac- teri1ed b~- systcm,uic inquiry that rclic~ IK·,wil~- on empirical obsen-;1tions of the 11.m1raJ world. :~ .1 product, it !us bccn ddined .1~ empirical knowledgc that i~ grounded .rnd testnl in expt'.ricnce ,rnd i~ the rc~ult of inn:stigatin: dfort. furthcnnorc, sciL·nce is c011eci·ed ,ls being the conscn~u.1I, inlc1rmed opinion ,1bour the n.uur.1I world, including human heh.1·ior and ~oci.11 action {Gortncr & Schult/., 1988).

Science l1.1s come to rcpn:~ent knowledge, and it i~ gencrJtcd by .1ctiYitics that combine ,llh.mct'.mcnt of knowlcdgc {research) .md exphrn.nion t<.ir knmdcdge ( theory I ( Po\',:r~ & Knapp, 2011 ). Citing Van Lu:r, Sih ,1 ( 1977) li~r, ,ix character· isrics of science ( 11ox 1-2 ).

Scien.:e hJ, becn d,1.sit-ied in sc":r,11 \l~·s. Thc~i.: induJc pun: or b,1si1: s1:irnn:, 11,uural scio:1Ke, hun1.111 or ~<Ki,11 sci.:ncc, and .1ppli.:J 11r pr.Kticc ,cicnce. Thc d,l.sit-i- c.uiom .UL' nor mutuJlly cxdusi·,: .md .1re open to intapn:ration b.1sed on philo~oph- ic.11 orienr,uion. T.1blc 1-1 li,b exampk, of ,1 number of .,cienn:s b~• thi~ manncr of d.1ssit-ic.1tion.

Some ~cienccs Lk-~- d.1!s~iti,·,1tion. for examplc, cumputer science is .1rgu.1hl~· .1p· plied or pcrlup:-. pure. LJ,, is certainly a prJctice sci1:11cc, but it i~ .1l~o .1 soci.11 sL·iencc. Psycholol:,~· might bc a b.tsiL· scicnce, .1 human sci,.:nc.:, or ,111 .1pplied science, Jc-pcnJ- ing on \"h,ll aspect of psyd10logy onc is referring to.

There .1rc , ditfrn:nce~ b.:nwen the human .111d n.1tur.1l sciences. Human ,L°iCnL°CS rcti:r to thc field, of ps~·d1ology, .mthropology, .md sociology ,rnd mav i.:vrn extend to economic~ ;md politicJI sL·ictKe. The,c Lfo.:iplines de,1I with '..trious ;h~x·cts of hum.111!-> .md human inter.1ctio11,. ;-,.;;itur.1I ,cicnces, on the other h.rnJ, arc co1Ken- trated 1111 demcnr, found in n,Hure that do nor rdJre to the ror,1lity of the inJi idual.

Table 1 · l Classifications of Science


Natural sciences

Bosic or pure sciences

Human or socio! sciences

Proctice or applied sciences


Chemistry, physics, biology, physiology, geology, meteorology

Mathematics, logic, chemistry, physics, English (longuoge]

Psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, political science, history, religion

Architecture, engineering, medicine, pharmacology, low

Chapter 1 Philosophy, Science, and Nursing 7

There ,,re inherent Jiftcrc11ec~ between the h11nlJn .md 11,nur.11 scil.'ncc:, that make thl.' resl.'.1rch technique~ of thl.' 11atur.1I sci1..·11ee~ ( e.g., laboratory l.'xpetimcntarion l im- proper or pot,nti.1lly probkm;itic for hum,m ~cicm:cs l Gormer & Schultz, 1988 ).

It has been positcd that JI though nursing draws on the b.tsic and pure ~cicncl.'s ( c.g., physiolob~· .111d chcmistrr] anJ has dur,Kteristics of ,oci.11 s..:icnccs, it is without question .m .1pplicd or prJcticl.' science. Hm,·e,·cr, it is impnrr.rnt to notr.: th,lt it is JIM> synthesized, in that ir dr,1ws on the kno\'kdge of orher l.'stablishl.'d dis..:iplincs-induding other prJcrice disripline~ 1 D.1hnkc &. f>rcht:r, 2016; Holzcmer, 2007; Risjord, 2010 ).

Overview of Philosophy Within .my discipline, both scholars ,md ~tudrnts ,hould bc J\',ll'l' of thc philosoph- ical oricntarions thJt .m: the lusis for de'doping theory ,ind ,1d,·Jncing knowkdge l D,1hnke & Drl.'h.:r, 20 I 6; Di Bartolo, I 998; Northrup ct al., 200-!: R.isjord, 20 l O l. R.11 hcr th.m J focm on ",kin~ probk1m, or am,m.:ring questions rd.1tl.'d to dis.:i- plinc ( \'hich ,1rc ta~ks of thc di!>..:iplinc ' science I, the philosophy of .1 disciplinc ,rudir.:~ the concepts thJt ,trurrure the 1huugh1 proce!>scs of that disciplinl.' wi1h the intcllt of recognizing .111d rcvc.1ling foumhtiom .111d prcsuppositions ( Bla..:kburn, 2016 ).

Philosophy has been ddincd J, .. a ,tulh of probkms th.1r .1re ultimate, JbstrJ..:t, .md gcncrJI. These problem.~ arl· ..:om.:erncd with 1hc nanm· ofcxisten..:e, k.i1owkdg._., mnr.11- ity, n:ason, ,md hum.m purpo:-.l·" (Tei.:hm.111 & b·ans, 1999, p. l ). Philrn,ophy tries to discm·er k.iwwkdgc and truth ;md ;l!tempt, to idcnti~' wlut is ',1lu.1blc and import:.111t.

,lodcrn philosoph~ is usuJlly tr.tccd to Ren._. IksC,Htl.'s, fr.mci, BJ..:on, B.1rueh SpinoLa, and I 111111.mul.'l K.rnt ( ca. I 600-1800 ). Dcscarte, ( I 596-1 ()50 l .111d Spinoza ( 1632-1677) \'t:rl· early rationJli!>t!>. R.-nit ,nJli,1:- bclil·,·e th.11 r..:.1son i~ superior IO cx- pl.'riencc .1~ J ,our..:c ofknowkdgl.'. R.1rio11.1list:-. ,mempt to dctl·nnine th<: ll,llllfl" ofthl.' world .rnd rc.11ity hy deduction .md seres~ the importJnce of mathem.iti.:al proccdurt's.

B.Kon ( 1561-1626) \',ls ,111 e.uly empiricist. Like rationalist!>, 111..· suppom.-d cx-

perirnent..1tion and srientitic methods for sol'ing probkm~. Th.: work of K.1111 ( 172-1–1804 l sct the foundation for n1.111y l.1tl.'r dl.',·dopmcnts

in philosoph~·- K.111t bcli'-',-..-d knowkdgc is rcl.nin.- .ind th.n the mind p!Jys ;in Jcti'C role in kno\'ing. Othu philo~ophers h,1,·c al,o influenced nur~ing J!ld thl.' ad- ' ,llKC of nur~ing !,Ciencc. Se,·er.1I .1rr.: discmscd I.Her in the chJpter.

.I though there is ,omc ,·ariJtion, trnditinnally., thc he'> of philosophy include mc1.1phy~ic!, {ontology .md cosmology), epistemology, lo~ic, l.'~thctic~ •. md cthi..:s or ;ixiology. PnliticJI philosophy and philosophy of scil.'ncc .m: ,Hidcd by so1m: Juthor~ ( Rutty, 1998; Tcichm.111 & E'ans, I 999 l. T.1bk 1-2 ~u111111.1rize!> till· major br.mchc!> of philoi,ophy.

Science and Philosophical Schools of Thought Th~· ..:on..:ept of science .1~ under!,tood in the 21st century i!, rd.uin:ly nr.:w. In thr.: paiod of mmkrn science, three philosophies of science ( pllJdigm~ or world'icws) dominate: rationali!>m, cmpiridsm, .rnd humJn s..:ience/phl.'non1e11olob~·. R.1tio11Jlism Jnd empirici!,111 Jre ofo:n rcrmcd rt·aii>nf l'frn• and human science/phenomenology .ind rd.1ted "'orkh·il·ws (i.e., histori..:ism) .ue ..:onsidcrcd po-ai1•crl Pin,• ( Hickman, 2011; .kki'>, 2012 ). Thesl.' two world·iews domin.ucd rh..:oreri~·.1I discus,ion in ntm- ing through the l 990~. i1orc recently, .1ttcnrion !us foo1scd on .mother dominant workh-icw: ~posrmodernism" f Meidl>, 2012; Rcni, 199;; J.

8 Unit I Introduction to Theory

Table l -2 Branches of Philosophy Branch






Ethics (oxiology)


Philosophy of science

Politicol philosophy


Study of the fundamental nature of reality and existence-general theory of reality

Study of theory of being (what is or what exisfs)

Study of the physical universe

Study of knowledge (ways of knowing, nature of truth, and relationship between knowledge and belief)

Study of principles and methods of reasoning (inference and argument)

Study of nature of values; right and wrong (moral philosophy)

Study of oppreciolion of the orts or things beautiful

Study of science ond scientific practice

Study of citizen and stole

Sources: Blackburn 12016); Teichman ond E11ons iJ 999).

Received View (Empiricism, Positivism, Logical Positivism) Empiricism !1.1~ it~ roots in the writings of Frrnci!- B.icon, John Locke, .rnd D,1,·id Hume, who ,·.ilued ob~ern.tion, pcrcq1tiun bv sen~es, .md experience .1~ ~ource of knowkdgL· I (.;orrncr & Sdiultz, 1988; Pim ers & Kn.1pp, 2011 l. Empirici~m i~ founded on the bdicf th.1t what j5 cxperien..:ed i~ ,,· ..:xisb, and it~ k.i1nwlcdge base: requires rhese cxpe1iences be Ytrified through ~cicntific methodology ( D.ihnke & Dreher, 2016; Gust.ifi,son, 2002 ). This knowledge is then p.issed on to other~ in the dis..:ipline .rnd ~ubequcntly built on. The term rrcci11cd Pit-11' or l'fffiPcd l.·1wwfrtf.._1TL' denote~ inliiiduab le.mi by bL·ing told or recei,·ing knowledge.

Empiricism hokh that truth ,orre~pond~ to ob!'>en·.1ble, redu..:tion, wrilication, control, and bia:-,-free ~cience. It emphasize!'> m.ithenuti..: formula:-, to nplain phc:- numeri.i .rnd prekrs simple dichotomies .ind cl.isitic.1tiun of concepts. Additionally, e,·cryrhing can he redu..:ed to .i scientific formul.1 \'ith little room for interpretation (Dilhrtolo, 1998; c.;onncr & S..:hultz, 1988; Risjord, 2010).

Empirici~m fo..:u~e~ on undcr~r.mding the part~ of the \·hole in .111 .lttempt to underst,rnd the \'hole. It stri,·es to explain nature through testing of h~·pothese!'> and de'dopment of theorie:,. Theories .trc nude to dncribe, explain, ;.llld predict phe- JHimen.i in n.iture .md to pnwide undcrsr.inding of relationships herneen phenomena. Concepts mu~r be operationalized in the fixm of propositional stJtements, thereby m.1king me.i,urement possible:. Instrumentation, reliability, .rnd ',1lidity .ire ~tressed in empiric.ii research methodologies. On..:e me,1sure111ent i, determined, it i~ possible to tc:st theorie~ through experimentation or obsc:rvarion, ,,·hich re~ults in 'Critic1tion or falsitic.nion ( Cull-\'ilb~· & Pepin, 1987; Suppl.· & Jacox, 198:i ).

Positil'ism is often equated with empirici5m. Like empiricism, positivi~m ~upports med1ani!'>tic, r~·dm:tionist principles, \'here the complex cm be best understood in term:, of it~ b,1~ic components. Lit1Ticnl positiPism \'JS the dominant empirical philosophy of science b.:tween the I XXO~ .111d l 9S(h. Logical positiYists recognized only the logi..:.11 and empirical ba~e~ of science .111d strt'~sed tlut there is no room for met.iphysic:s, un- der~tanding, or ml'.ming within thl.' rc.ilm of ~..:ience ( Polifroni, 2015; Ri~jord, 2010 ).

Chapter 1 Philosophy, Science, ond Nursing 9

Logical positi,·ism m.1int.1incd th.1t scic11ec i~ ,-.1luc frce, iJll.kpen<-knt of thc scientist, .1nd obt,1incd using objectin: methods. Thc gu.1! of si.:icncc is to cxpbin, predict, .md control. Thcorici,, arc cithcr truc or tnlse, .. ubjcct ro cmpirii.:al obscrntion, Jnd capabk of being rcdui.:cd to cxisting ~i.:icntitic thcorics ( Rutty, 1998 l.

Contemporary Empiricism/ Postpositivism Positi'ism c;1111e under (riricism in thc l 96lh \ hcn pos1tmstii.: log.ii.: w.1s decmed faulty ( Rutty, 1998 ). An m·crreli.111ec 1111 srrictl~· ..:ontrolkd experimentation in .1r- tifii.:i.1I ettings produi.:cd rc,ults th.u indi..:atcd that mui.:h ~ignifi..:ant kno\"kdgc or information w.1s mi-.sni. In recent years, scholars han: dctcrminl.'d tl1.1t thc positi,·ist "ic"· of s..:kncc is outd.m:d .1nd mislc,1ding in that it comributl.'., to m-crfragmcnration in knowkdge and thcory dc,·clopmcnt ( Di Bartolo, 1998 ). It !us bccn ob.scn·cd th.1t positi,·istic a11.1lysis of thcorics is fu11d.1mcm.1lly ddi:..:ri, c duc to imistence 011 an.ilyz- ing thc logii.:.1lly ideal, whi..:h results in t-indings rl1.1t l1.1n: link to do with reality. It was 111.1int.1ined thJt the contcxt of diKowry "·as artificial .111d thl.'ories .111d cxp!Jn.1- tiom can be understood 0111· "·ithin their discovery conrcxts I Suppc & JJ.cox, 1985 ). Also, scientific inquiry is inhcrcmly ,·a]ul.' l.idcn, .1s ..:,·cn choosing wh,H to inwstigatc and/or \·hat tcdmiqucs tu i.::mploy will rdki.:t th.: ,·.1lui.:::, ofthi.: rcsc.uchcr.

Thc rn1-rc11t g,cncration of postpositi,·ist~ .1i.:cq1ts the subjccti,·c 11-1ture of inquiry but still ~upport~ 1igor .md objccti,·c study through qu.mtit.uivc: rc:se.1ri.:h mcthmh. Indeed, ir ha~ hccn ob:,ern:d that molkrn empiricist~ or postpo~iti,·ist~ arc ..:unci.:rncd \"ith nplanation and pri.::dii.:tion of complcx phcnomcn.1. rccog,nizing conti.:xtu.11 ,·.1ri- .1bk, ( Powcr & Kn.1pp, 2011; Rced, 2008 ).

Nursing ond Empiricism As an cmcrg,ing disciplini.::, nursing, l1.1~ followed established di:,cipline~ (c-.g., physiol- ogy) .md the mi.::dic.11 model in stre: